Nucleosynthesis is the creation of atomic nuclei, i.e., the creation of Elements. Types include:
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis - formation of Hydrogen and Helium in the Big Bang.
Stellar Nucleosynthesis - Proton-Proton Chain, Triple Alpha Process, CNO Cycle, S-Process, R-process (types of Neutron Capture), rp-process, Photodisintegration, Carbon Burning (if 6×108 K, producing oxygen Neon, Sodium, and Magnesium), and Oxygen Burning (if 109 K, producing magnesium, Silicon, Phosphorus, and Sulfur).
Supernova Nucleosynthesis - processes within supernovae such as the r-process or rp-process.
Cosmic Ray Spallation - reduction of nuclei through impact with Cosmic Rays.