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Newton's laws

(physical laws of dynamics and gravitation)

The term Newton's laws generally refers to Newton's laws of motion, three propositions laid out by Isaac Newton that underly dynamics, physics of force and motion. A fourth law is Newton's law of gravitation, describes gravity, a source of force. These four laws, in addition to Newton's development of calculus underlie much of physics ever since.

Einstein's relativity theories affected all these, showing that Newton's laws merely approximate more complex laws that can differ significantly (measurably) under extreme circumstances. Astrophysics and modern technology include examples of such extreme circumstances, but Newton's laws are still widely useful approximations, generally used unless there is reason to believe the discrepancy is significant.

Further reading:

Referenced by pages:
black-hole information paradox
celestial mechanics
general relativity (GR)
homologous collapse
Laplace-Lagrange secular theory
mass transfer
Navier-Stokes equations (NS equations)
post-Newtonian formalism (PN formalism)
parameterized post-Newtonian formalism (PPN formalism)
quantum mechanics (QM)
quantum system
relativistic effect
scalar-tensor gravity
special relativity (SR)
surface gravity (g)