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Superluminous Supernova

(SLSN, Hypernova, Superluminous SN)
(stellar explosion larger than a supernova)

A Superluminous Supernova (SLSN or Superluminous SN or Hypernova) is a stellar explosion more energetic than a normal Supernova, i.e., they can be classified as very large Supernovae. Most are Type Ic or Type IIn supernovae, termed Type I SLSN (or SLSN-I), Type II SLSN (or SLSN-II), They are theorized to be Core Collapse Supernovae, but some don't fit that pattern. They are also thought to be the origin of long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRBs).

A third type called SLSN-R (for "Radioactive") apparently with Electromagnetic Radiation produced by a radioactive Nickel Isotope.

Among theories explaining their mechanisms:

  • Collapsar - core collapse of a rapidly rotating star of suitable mass. (The term hypernova sometimes is meant specifically for this type.)
  • Circumstellar Material (CSM) - brightness from the collision between expelled material from the exploding star and material around it.
  • Pair-instability - (Pair-Instability Supernova, PISN) if the internal Kinetic Energy is sufficiently high (i.e., Temperature), Pair Production may be the result (creation of a Particle and its anti-particle by an energetic Photon's near-miss with an atom).
  • Magnetar - can have additional energy for release.

(stars,event type,transient type)

Referenced by:
Fast Radio Burst (FRB)
Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB)