Temperature is the measure of hotness or coldness of
something, which corresponds to the Kinetic Energy of
the random motion of its constituent Particles.
In daily life, temperature is fairly clear, but
a cited temperature may need qualification for
some extreme conditions, regarding how it is determined,
or when describing something where temperature is
varying in time or space. Some means by which temperature
is measured:
 Excitation Temperature is based upon the degree of excitation of the particles (atoms) and is defined by using the Boltzmann Constant and Boltzmann Equation that describes the relation of temperature to States of Excitation, e.g., electrons above their ground state.
 Ionization Temperature is similar for the degree of ionization, using the Saha Equation.
 Effective Temperature is the temperature of a Black Body that would produce the same total Electromagnetic Radiation as a star or other object is producing.
 Color Temperature (in astronomy) is the temperature of a black body that would match a range of a star's (or other object's) spectrum. More specifically, the term may be used for a temperature value based on Photometry.
 Kinetic Temperature reflects the kinetic energy of a material's molecules, i.e., regarding the speed of the molecules but not their molecular rotation and vibration. It is defined as 2/3 the Boltzmann Constant times the mean kinetic energy of the molecules.
Stellar Temperature Determination is accomplished using these values and others.
(physics,measure)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature
Referenced by:
Abiotic Oxygen
Absorption
Absorption Line
Adiabatic Process
Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB)
Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR)
Anisotropy
Antenna Temperature
Atmosphere
Atmospheric Temperature Profile
Balmer Jump
Baroclinicity
Beta (β)
Binding Energy
Black Body (BB)
BlackBody Radiation
Bolometer
Boltzmann Constant (k)
Boltzmann Equation
BoseEinstein Statistics
CarbonateSilicate Cycle
Carbonate System
Chemical Equilibrium (CE)
Cepheid Variable
Clathrate
CMB Polarization
CNO Cycle
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Cold Gas
Cold Spot
Comet
Cryovolcano
Earthshine
Eccentricity (e)
Eclipse Mapping
Effective Temperature (T_{eff})
Reduction Potential (Eh)
Electron Degeneracy
Equation of State (EoS)
Equilibrium Condensation Model
Equilibrium Temperature (T_{eq})
Ethylene (C_{2}H_{4})
Exosphere
55 Cancri e (55 Cnc e)
Fractionation
Fusion
Galaxy Formation
Gamow Peak
Gravitational Collapse
Greenhouse Effect
Habitability
Horizontal Branch (HB)
Acetylene (C_{2}H_{2})
Helium (He)
HII Region (HII)
Humidity
Hydrology
Infrared (IR)
Instability Strip
Isothermal Core
Jeans Length
Kinetic Energy
KelvinHelmholtz Mechanism
Kramers' Opacity Law
Line Shape Function
Lithium (Li)
Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE)
Magma Ocean
MaxwellBoltzmann Distribution
MType Star (M)
Mean Free Path
Meridional Flow
Mixing Length Theory
Molecular Cloud
Noise Temperature
Nuclear Energy Generation Rate (ε)
Partition Function (Z)
Partial Differential Equation (PDE)
Phase Transition
Planck Function
Planet Formation
Plasma
Power Law
Protoplanetary Nebula (PPN)
Quantum Tunneling
Radioactive Dating
Radiometer
Refractory Material
Reynolds Number (Re)
Saha Equation
SchönbergChandrasekhar Limit
Shock Wave
Spectral Line Energy Distribution (SLED)
Superluminous Supernova (SLSN)
Snow Line
Solar Wind
Specific Heat
Spectroscopy
Star Formation (SF)
State of Excitation
State of Ionization
StefanBoltzmann Constant (σ)
Stellar Core
Stellar Model Atmosphere
Stellar Parameter Determination
Stellar Radius Determination
Stellar Structure
Stellar Temperature Determination
Supergiant
Superionic Ice
Surface Temperature
SachsWolfe Effect (SWE)
SunyaevZel'dovich Effect (SZ Effect)
Transition Edge Sensor (TES)
Thermal Noise
Thermal Wind
Thermodynamic Equilibrium (TE)
Tillotson Equation
Vega
Water Vapor Planet
Weathering
White Dwarf
Wien's Displacement Law
