Polarization is the orientation of waves to a particular direction. It can occur when the oscillation is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave but not when the oscillation is in the same direction as the wave's movement, so it does not occur in sound waves.
Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) can be polarized, but in astronomy, much is not. Exceptions are Maser radiation, radiation from active galaxies, Pulsars (PSR), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), light scattered by Cosmic Dust, and Synchrotron Radiation. Observation of polarization is used to detect magnetic fields.
Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT)
Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR)
Galactic Electron Density
South Pole Telescope (SPT)
Thomson Optical Depth
Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI)