Astrophysics (index)

Extra Solar Planet

(Exoplanet)
(planet not in the solar system)

An Extra Solar Planet (or Exoplanet) is a planet outside the solar system, e.g., orbiting another star. The first confirmed detection of an exoplanet was in 1992 and the first around a Main Sequence Star (51 Pegasi) in 1995.

As of 11/2012, 813 planets around 640 stars are known.

Detection methods:

A number of methods have been contemplated for future technology:

  • detecting the effects of magnetism, e.g., the planet's field affecting the star's field.

Some terms used to indicate planets of various characteristics, particularly their rough size:

  • Earths - roughly the size of Earth, rocky.
  • Super-Earths - noticeably larger than Earth, to 10-or-so Earth masses, sometimes confined to Rocky Planets.
  • Mega-Earths - more than 10 times the mass of Earth, yet rocky.
  • Mini Neptunes - noticeably smaller than Neptune, sometimes confined to gas planets.
  • Neptunes - roughly the size of Neptune, gas.
  • Gas Giants- Gas Planet roughly Saturn size or larger.
  • Jupiters - roughly the size of Jupiter, gas.
  • Super Jupiters or Super Giants - up to 80-or-so Jupiter masses.
  • Hot Jupiters (HJ) - Jupiter-like, in tight orbits around the star, e.g., a fraction of a day.
  • Hot Neptunes - similar for Neptune-sized planets.

Larger than Super Jupiters are Brown Dwarves (BD). Terms like Super Neptune are also used to indicate a Neptune-like composition.

The spacecraft Kepler Telescope is designed to survey the sky for exoplanets, and as of 1/2016 has detected 1000 planets and 3600 additional candidates.

Projected population statistics based upon surveys:

  • Half of star systems Super Earths.
  • 1/6 have Earths.
  • 5% have Gas Giants
  • 1% have Hot Jupiters.

(planets)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exoplanet
http://exoplanets.org/

Referenced by:
Astrometry
Atmospheric Model
Black Widow Pulsar (B1957+20)
Biofluorescence
Biosignature
Blended Spectra
Carbonate-Silicate Cycle
CHEOPS
Circumbinary Planet
Circumplanetary Disk
Color-Color Diagram
Coronagraph
CRIRES
Carl Sagan Institute (CSI)
Darwin
Dead Zone
Direct Imaging
Double-Line Spectroscopic Binary
Double Transit
Earthshine
EPOXI
Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO)
Exosatellite
Exo-S
F-Type Star (F)
Gas Giant
Gas Planet
General Circulation Model (GCM)
Gemini Observatory
Geochemistry
Giant Planet
Gliese-Jahreiss Catalog (GJ)
GJ 1214 b
Gemini Planet Imager (GPI)
HabEx
Habitability
HARPS
HARPS-N
HATNet
HCI
Hot Jupiter (HJ)
HR 8799
Hydrology
Insolation
Keck Observatory
Kepler Telescope
Kozai Mechanism
Keck Planet Imager And Characterizer (KPIC)
M Dwarf
Mega-Earth
Gravitational Microlensing
Multiplicity Fraction
MUSCLES
New Worlds Mission
Occultation
One Dimensional Climate Model
Orbital Inclination
Perturbation Theory
Phase Curve
Photometry
Planet Type
PLATO
Proxima B
PSF Fitting
Radial Velocity
Rayleigh Scattering
Red Noise
Redshift (z)
Rocky Planet
Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect
Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)
Speckle Suppression
Spectroscopic Binary
SPHERE
Starshade
Stellar Radius Determination
Subaru Telescope
Super-Earth
Survey-based Designator
Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF)
Transient Astronomy
Transit
Transiting Planet
Transmission Spectroscopy
TRAPPIST
TRAPPIST-1
Trans-Atlantic Exoplanet Survey (TrES)
Transit Timing Variations (TTV)
Vegetation Red Edge (VRE)
Water-Ice Planet
Water Lines
James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)
XO Project

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